Before they can be widely used, simulation methods must be validated. This is done by comparing simulation results with analytical results from simple cases or experimental investigations. Partly, there also exist standards, which describe comparing validation cases.
Validation can only be performed when the initial and boundary conditions are well known, the construction of the component is well documented, and all relevant material parameters are available. Unfortunately, open literature has very few experimental studies that meet the above-described conditions for validation. For this reason, the validation examples presented below will frequently make use of unpublished experimental results.
Numerous studies have used the outdoor test area of the Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics ( to provide well-documented measurements of the hygrothermal behavior of open-air components). The comparisons between experiments and simulations have shown that WUFI® can accurately simulate not only laboratory tests, but also the complex processes in real parts that are exposed to actual weather conditions.
Comparison of field measurements and calculations of relative humidity and temperature in wood framed walls
Hägerstedt, S. Olof; Arfvidsson, Jesper 2010
Time-dependent Moisture Distribution in Drying Cement Mortars – Results of Neutron Radiography and Inverse Analysis of Drying Tests
Villmann, B.; Slowik, V.; Wittmann, F. H.; Vontobel, P.; J. Hovind 2014
Validation of a One-Dimensional Transient Heat and Moisture Calculation Tool under Real Conditions
Mundt-Petersen, S. O.; Harderup, L.-E. 2013
Air leakage and hygrothermal performance of an internally insulated log house
Alev, Ü.; Uus, A.; Teder, M.; Miljan, M-J; Kalamees, T. 2014
Hygrothermal Simulation of Green Roofs – New Models and Practical Application
Stöckl, B.; Zirkelbach, D.; Künzel, H. M. 2014
Two-dimensional test cases of ISO 10211
Simultaneous Heat and Moisture Transport in Building Components. One- and two-dimensional calculation using simple parameters.
Künzel, H. M. 1995
Moisture Transport and Storage Coefficients of Porous Mineral Building Materials – Theoretical Principles and New Test Methods.
Krus, M. 1996
The hygrothermal behaviour of rooms: Combining thermal building simulation and hygrothermal envelope calculation
Holm, A.; Künzel, H. M.; Sedlbauer, K. 2003
Validation of a hygrothermal whole building simulation software
Antretter, F.; Sauer, Fabian; Schöpfer, Teresa; Holm, Andreas 2011
Use of moisture-buffering tiles for indoor climate stability under different climatic requirements
Antretter, Florian; Mitterer, Christoph; Jung, Seong-Moon 2010
Coupling of dynamic thermal bridge and whole-building simulation
Antretter, Florian; Radon, Jan; Pazold, Matthias 2013
All-in-One Design Tool Solution for Passive Houses and Buildings – Monthly Energy Balance and Hygrothermal Simulation
Antretter, F.; Klingenberg, Katrin; Pazold, Matthias 2013
Monthly balance based method versus transient whole building energy simulation for passive house design
Schöner, Tobias; Antretter, Florian; Radon, Jan 2013
Thermal performance of slab on grade with floor heating in a passive house
Radon, Jan; Was, Krzysztof; Flaga-Marianczyk, Agnieszka; Antretter, F. 2014
The hygrothermal assessment of constructions with the simulation tool WUFI® corresponds to the state of the art and to current rules of technology.
The standardized Glaser-Method doesn´t allow the evaluation of the general moisture protection, since it only estimates the risk of dew in nonhydroscopic materials, which are not capillary-active (e.g. insulations), only in winter time. Furthermore, it doesn´t include properly other moisture loads like building moisture, rainwater, and summer condensation as well as climatic and/or usage conditions that don´t fit to the usual settings in residential buildings. Therefore, hygrothermal simulation is required.
EN 15026: Hygrothermal performance of building components and building elements – Assessment of moisture transfer by numerical simulation; German version EN 15026:2007
DIN 4108: Thermal protection and energy economy in buildings – Part 3: Protection against moisture subject to climate conditions – Requirements and directions for design and construction
Code 6-1-01/D: “A guide to hygrothermal computer simulation”
Code 6-2-01/D: “Simulation of heat and moisture transfer”
Code “Feuchteschutz bei Flachdächern in Holzbauweise”
Swedish Building Regulations – BBR 2011
ISO 6946: Building components and building elements - Thermal resistance and thermal transmittance - Calculation method (ISO 6946:2007); German version EN ISO 6946:2007
ISO 13790: Energy performance of buildings - Calculation of energy use for space heating and cooling (ISO 13790:2008); German version EN ISO 13790:2008
ISO 13791: Thermal performance of buildings - Calculation of internal temperatures of a room in summer without mechanical cooling - General criteria and validation procedures (ISO 13791:2012); German version EN ISO 13791:2012
ISO 15255: Energy performance of buildings - Sensible room cooling load calculation - General criteria and validation procedures; German version EN 15255:2007
DIN EN ISO 15265: Energy performance of buildings - Calculation of energy needs for space heating and cooling using dynamic methods - General criteria and validation procedures; German version EN 15265:2007
DIN 4108-2:2013-02: Thermal protection and energy economy in buildings - Part 2: Minimum requirements to thermal insulation
VDI 6020 - 1: Requirements on methods of calculation to thermal and energy simulation of buildings and plants - Buildings
VDI 2078: Calculation of cooling load and room temperatures of rooms and buildings (VDI Cooling Load Code of Practice)
VDI 6007 – 1: Calculation of transient thermal response of rooms and buildings - Modelling of rooms
DIN EN ISO 7730:2006-05: Ergonomics of the thermal environment - Analytical determination and interpretation of thermal comfort using calculation of the PMV and PPD indices and local thermal comfort criteria (ISO 7730:2005); German version EN ISO 7730:2005
DIN EN 15251:2012-12: Indoor environmental input parameters for design and assessment of energy performance of buildings addressing indoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting and acoustics; German version EN 15251:2007
DIN EN 13779:2007-09 : Ventilation for non-residential buildings - Performance requirements for ventilation and room-conditioning systems; German version EN 13779:2007
DIN EN 13829:2001-02: Thermal performance of buildings - Determination of air permeability of buildings - Fan pressurization method (ISO 9972:1996, modified); German version EN 13829:2000